Integrating the English language into the fabric of industrialized Asian communities

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The “Mild Crisis” of the English Language in Japan


With its great history, unparalleled economic development, cultural richness, and culinary diversity, Japan offers its visitors experiences marked by novelty and distinctiveness. Yet, once visitors enter the Land of the Rising Sun, the English language seizes to be the anchor dropped in a foreign country to secure one’s stay. For example, there are few signboards or warning signs in English that provide detailed directions or safety instructions. It is also not easy to ask public bus drivers for directions when you only speak English. Restaurants that offer menus in foreign languages are a rarity and the ones that do, prominently display the information.


As with most non-English speaking industrialized countries, national economic growth (including foreign trade) is based on political, social, and cultural progress, independent of the use of foreign languages, especially English (MEXT, 1963). For developing countries, however, whose economies are undergoing political and structural change, knowledge of English is essential for economic and human capital development. The language issue is a complex one, particularly for English, promoted as preparing people to study abroad and manage globalized conditions while others see it as a “cultural invasion” (Saitman, 2019).


A favor for the English Language depends on how developed the country is


Upon comparison between two of the most densely populated Asian cities – Jakarta and Tokyo – the results show that on average Indonesians living in Jakarta demonstrate higher levels of English language proficiency than Japanese living in Tokyo. Indonesians tend to adopt English as a means of communication not only with foreigners but also among members of the Indonesian community. I am referring only to the capitals of the two countries as capital cities and metropolitan areas drive national economic growth and are home to a big portion of the populations. 


From an economic perspective, English plays a role in the process of linking and establishing the presence of developing countries on the global scene. In the context of emerging economies, English has the advantage of facilitating business relations and global expansion. Industrialized countries, however, with established economic dominance, feel less pressured to adopt the English language as a means to enter the global market economy. In a developed country, especially one with a robust domestic economy, English, while still important, is not seen as an essential skill necessary for economic advancement. Joshua Fishman (1998, 2000), the noted linguist, makes the case that “ultimately democracy, international trade, and economic development can flourish in any tongue” (Yeung et.al, 2012)

From a social perspective, even though in varying degrees, both Japan and Indonesia look up to the West and try to emulate different aspects of it. Nevertheless, only the developing world sees the act of conversing in English as “cool”. For some Indonesians, mastery of English has become increasingly tied to social standing. The ability to speak in English is seen as a status symbol and in extreme cases, people take pride in their ability to speak poor Indonesian (Onishi, 2010). 

Post-colonial countries, such as Indonesia, have undergone partial erosion of the indigenous political, cultural, social, and economic customs. As a result, the population of post-colonial countries demonstrates a weak sense of national identity, making it more vulnerable to outside influence, including language acquisition and usage. The sense of cultural pride closely correlates with the population’s drive to “trade-off” their native language for a language that provides better social standing. English language proficiency for people from the developing world promises higher social status followed by career advancement.


Language and culture are inter-dependent, shape each other, and are dimensions of each other (Yeung et.al, 2012). Language is a system of signs, organized according to various linguistic (and cultural) codes, that encapsulates and embodies cultural values. The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis states that the structure of a language influences the ways in which its speakers conceptualize their world or otherwise affects their cognitive processes (Lucy, 2001). 


Language reveals many things about the identity of a given community. Indonesian language, for example, is quite simple. There are no endings to add to verbs to indicate if the action is completed, taking place at the moment, or will happen in the future. You simply add a certain word depending on which tense you want to use. The Indonesian language has developed to serve the communication needs of its people. As a country in political and economic transition, with the largest non-ruling communist party back in the days, Indonesia exhibits elements of socialism and peasant/worker identity, characterized by sincerity and simplicity (Wieringa, 2002). 

Japanese language, on the other hand, with its thousands of characters, each requiring from one to twenty-three strokes to write, is much more complex than the English (Skouson, 2012). It reflects the detail-oriented mindset of the Japanese people. The kanji characters themselves, thought as pictographs of the concepts they represent, communicate an important aspect of Japanese culture and communication. The use of symbolic language is closely tied to the use of gestures and non-verbal communication.


Day by day, more and more loanwords are appearing and are being used by Japanese. People in Japan start to appreciate the positive images that these words convey such as newness, coolness, sophistication, and so on (Ozaki, 2014). The use of imported words is gradually starting to confer status on the speaker. As an example, thanks to local brands, such as AEON and Meiji, the use of the loanword sutoroberī when referring to the flavor of yogurt, is expanding significantly. The question, however, is if learning and using individual loanwords without the ability to put them together by knowledge of the English language sentence structure would lead to successful usage of the English language. Or it merely brings about fundamental changes in the Japanese language, “drowning out perfectly good Japanese expressions” (Ebeid, 2016). At the same time, this raises the concern that this process might be alienating the Japanese from their identity. 


Filled with national pride, Japanese people hold onto their national identity through every means possible, including language and way of communicating. According to a survey on the view of national identity, “About nine-in-ten Japanese (92%) believe it is very or somewhat important for a person to be able to speak Japanese to be considered truly Japanese (Stokes, 2017).” The question, then, becomes ‘how can the English language be integrated into the fabric of the Japanese community while preserving its cultural values?’ For English to be integrated seamlessly into the fabric of the community, without threatening the cultural identity of the Japanese, it needs to be seen as an aspect of the national identity. Through textbooks, mass media (news channels, newspapers, etc), advertising, the consumer market (including advertisements), pop culture (film, music, television, video games, fashion, and technology) and the environment, English can be adopted and shaped to suit the Japanese culture and its values.

What’s the Status of the Current English Education System in Japan?

Aware of the relatively low level of English language proficiency among the average Japanese, one would naturally call into question the English language curriculum in Japanese secondary and high schools. One might want to conclude that the very organized and thorough approach to ESL – with the implementation of the English language curriculum in primary schools, with the introduction of the communicative approach in English language classes, and with the assistance of native English language teachers from the Japan Exchange and Teaching (JET) program – has resulted in a generally high proficiency of English in Japan. 

For quite some time, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (MEXT) has been ardently attracting overseas students and English-language teachers to ensure an educational environment that corresponds to globalization. Back in 1987, it started the well-known Japan Exchange and Training (JET) recruitment program.

For close to half a century now, the initiative of bringing college students (mostly native speakers of English) to Japan as Assistance Language Teachers hasn’t had a significant impact on people’s English proficiency level. According to the EF English Proficiency Index, Japan is ranked 37th in terms of its (classified as low) proficiency.

In a way, it seems like the strategy of importing native English speakers to Japan to educate English is not producing the desired effect. What’s missing is the practical application of the knowledge and the development of students’ ability to communicate in English. 

Outside of their classrooms, when faced by a foreigner, young Japanese students have a hard time using English in casual daily conversations (at times, they even prefer taking the shortcut by stating that they don’t speak English). Sending Japanese students abroad and ‘forcing’ them to apply the language for mere survival – asking for directions, buying food, etc – might potentially have a far more impactful result.

What can be done to improve the English language proficiency of Japanese learners?


How to provide a rich English language experience with the use of stimulating activities? Things that could be done can ensure results of varying degrees both in the short and in the long term. One thing that can be done at the present to help primary and secondary school students improve their ability to hold conversations in English and gain motivation is to integrate more creative methods of teaching such as role-play activities for primary school students and drama-based classes for secondary school students. Such an approach would help bridge the gap between theoretical knowledge and application by allowing learners to functionally use the language in a more natural way. 


The second course of action, and undeniably the more promising one, in the long run, is introducing and immersing Japanese children in the English language from the earliest age. And that’s where the role of the bilingual kindergartens or preschools, offering a dual immersion program, comes into play as they represent the most futile grounds for natural second language acquisition by merely exposing children to the second language and letting them absorb it and reproduce it naturally.


A common element among some of the non-native English speaking nations with the highest English language proficiency is that English language teaching starts at a very early age and can be seen and heard on a daily basis. The Netherlands followed by Sweden, Denmark, and Norway top the rankings of the most fluent English speakers (Hardingham-Gill, 2019). Swedish children, for example, grow up hearing English in pop music, television programs, and advertisements (Baker, 1998). What’s more, instead of being dubbed, imported movies and videos are generally subtitled resulting in greater exposure to the English language.  


Along with the widely held assumption that it is considerably more difficult to learn a second language in adulthood, teaching children English allows for natural, close to the first language, acquisition, in which children acquire language without thinking how it is working functionally. Educators should benefit from the fact that only 1% of children ages 3 to 5 show signs of any kind of anxiety (fear of people, places, and things) and provide children with opportunities to learn, explore, and communicate in English (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2020).


The Need for a Language


Adults must see a reason for learning something. We are ready to learn something only when we experience a need to learn it. Whether we want to continue your academic or professional career or engage in a desired passion or profession, education helps meet life- and work-related needs and objectives. With regards to language, “if the need for [it] is present in order to interact with others, study, play with friends, and so on, then that language will continue to be acquired and retained” (Grosjean, 2011).


In a highly homogenous society, however, the need to learn English in order to play and interact with others on a daily basis is virtually nonexistent. Social interaction in English and experiences that are achieved through the use of foreign language is limited to the classroom.

In contrast, early age children do not need to see a reason or experience a need for learning. They use learning merely for pleasure and as a source of exploration. According to the proponents of constructivism, we do not learn a language in order to communicate. First, we try to communicate, and, in the attempt, we learn a language. Meaning is constructed by the learner through experience (Arends, 1998). 


In the early to mid-teens, when children become conscious of the concept of time, the learning process shifts to one of hunting, protecting, and procreating. (Boeheim, 2009). In our modern-day society, learning has taken the form of a source of liberation and a tool for social change.

References:

Arends, R.I., Winitzky, N.E., Tannenbaum, M.D. (1998). Exploring Teaching. Boston, MA: McGraw Hill Companies.

Baker, C. & Jones, S. (1998). Encyclopedia of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education, Multilingual Matters.

Boeheim, B. (2009). Stop Presenting: Start Succeeding. AuthorHouse.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). Data and Statistics on Children’s Mental Health https://www.cdc.gov/childrensmentalhealth/data.html

Ebeid, A. (2016). Are Loanwords a Threat to the Japanese Language, https://www.nippon.com/en/column/g00195/#

EF English Proficiency Index. (2019). Japan’s English Proficiency Drops Among Non-English Speaking Countries. https://www.nippon.com/en/japan-data/h00594/japan’s-english-proficiency-drops-among-non-english-speaking-countries.html

Grosjean, F. (2011). Nurturing Bilingualism in Children: The Strategies Used to Help Children Become Bilingual. Psychology Today. https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/life-bilingual/201104/nurturing-bilingualism-in-children

Hardingham-Gill, T. (2019). The destinations with the top non-native English speakers. https://edition.cnn.com/travel/article/english-speaking-countries/index.html

Lucy, J. (2001). Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Science, https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/psychology/sapir-whorf-hypothesis

Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). (1963) Japan’s Growth and Education: Role of Education in Economic Development in Japan. https://www.mext.go.jp/b_menu/hakusho/html/hpae196301/hpae196301_2_005.html

Onishi, N. (2010). As English Spreads, Indonesians Fear for Their Language. https://www.nytimes.com/2010/07/26/world/asia/26indo.html?smid=fb-share&referer=http%253A%252F%252Fm.facebook.com

Ozaki, S. (2014). Notes on English Loanwords in Japanese: Major Sound Transformations. https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/nbukiyou/15/0/15_KJ00009859839/_pdf

Stokes, B. (2017). Views on national identity by country. Pew Research Center. https://www.pewresearch.org/global/2017/02/01/views-of-national-identity-by-country/

Skouson, D. (2012). Becoming Re-Successful: Memo to the American Business Engine: Think Japanese to Stall. Skouson Literature.

Wieringa, S. (2002). Sexual Politics in Indonesia. Institute of Social Studies. Palgrave Macmillan.

Yeung, A., Brown, E., Lee, C. (2012). Communication and Language: Surmounting the Barriers to Cross-cultural Understanding. Information Age Publishing, Inc.

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